The plants of Dokdo are composed of 59 taxa, including one phylum, three classes, 21 orders, 29 families, 50 genera, 48 species, one subspecies, nine variants, and one variety.
The list of Dokdo’s flora is categorized into indigenous, naturalized, cultivated, and planted species.
Major herbaceous species form six communities: wild millets, wild millets-Aster spathulifolius var. oharai, wild millets-Artemisia japonica var. hallaisanensis, Aster spathulifolius var. oharai-Artemisia japonica var. hallaisanensis, goosefoot, and rape-singer.
Arboreal Species include spindle tree, Lonicera insularis, and e. Submacrophylla, and among them, Reynoutria sachalinensis, tiger lily and Lysimachia mauritiana are the specific plant species designated by the Ministry of Environment.
As of 2013, 134 insect species in total, excluding 30 unidentified specifies, were found to live on Dokdo.
By order, they include beetles, flies, butterflies, bees, stinkbugs, cicadas, springtails, dragonflies, grassroots, earwigs, and lacewings.
Due to the restricted distribution of flora and poor habitat environment on Dokdo as a volcanic island, it shows a very unique insect fauna.
Dokdo also serves as the biogeographic limit lines for many insects, as it is the northern limit line for Campylomma lividicorne Reuter, eastern limit line for Balclutha pseudoviridis, and western limit line for Agrypnus miyamotoi.
As of 2013, 175 bird species in total were found on Dokdo.
Dokdo is a large habitat of the black-tailed gull, stormy petrel, and streaked shearwater, and as its unique geographical features allow the island to be free from human activity, it maintains a natural biota.
It is also home to diverse species of birds, from endangered species such as the falcon and honey buzzard to a number of snipes and commonly seen sparrows.
Dokdo is also located along the migration route of birds traveling north to south, serving as a rest stop for various migratory birds.
Dokdo has significant biological value, lying on the East Sea Rim of the Pacific, which is included in the migration route of birds, along with Korea, Siberia, Alaska, North America, Japan, Southeast Asia, and Australia.
04 Sea Algae
According to underwater investigations from 2006-2010, 95 species of sea algae in total were found along the coast of Dokdo.
They are categorized into brown, greenm and red algae, and representative types include sea mustard, kelp, laver, agar-agar, and sea weed fusiforme.
Recently, the number of sea algae species has sharply decreased; it is speculated that the fall in number, also seen on Ulleungdo, is caused by the rise in sea temperature, the northward movement of tropical sea currents from the south, and the marine environment changes due to global warming.
According to underwater investigations from 2006-2010, 190 invertebrate species in total were found along the coast of Dokdo.
Representative invertebrates include the abalone, conch, mussel, sea cucumber, shrimp, red crab, and common stalked barnacle.
According to underwater investigations from 2006-2010, 95 species of fish were found in the waters off Dokdo.
They include squid, mackerel pike, yellowtail, blowfish, gizzard shad, conger, halibut, sailfin sandfish, atka mackerel, and jacoever.
Species found along the coast of the East Sea, sub-tropical fish inhabiting the waters off Jeju Island, and cold-water fish moving around the waters off Dokdo live together.